Towards an enabling environment in Athens, Greece
Keywords:Dignity, disability, accessibility, universal design, inclusive environments
In spite of regulations aimed at ensuring that all people can enter and move through spaces, the need to create physical solutions that do not separate or segregate disabled populations has been overlooked. Further, the response of architects and designers is often to meet these regulations without considering the emotional impact of their designs, or the need for all users to be able to retain a sense of dignity as they enter and move through buildings and open spaces. This gap calls for a (re)generation of the urban form with a totally new agenda. My research argues that designing spaces for disability should focus on designing places for dignity. Aimed at upcycling everyday environments as enabling environments, this research identifies and comparatively analyses typologies of apartment buildings and neighbourhoods in Athens, Greece, where the experience of dignity is ubiquitously threatened due to a planning pathogenesis. Here, typologies are evaluated using dignity-based criteria, and new design guidelines and actions are proposed. This research and its findings will enrich access-knowledge through their innovative urban design paradigms with the potential to transform spatial environments into dignified spaces for all.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions of the Association of European Schools of Planning
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Albrecht, Gary, Katherine Seelman and Michael Bury (2001) Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Boys, Jos (ed.) (2017) Disability, space, architecture: A reader. London; New York: Routledge.
Busch, Akiko (1994) Signs of the times. Metropolis Magazine, 13 (12), p.45.
Darwall, Stephen (2017) Equal dignity and rights. In Debes, Remy (ed.) Dignity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp.181-201.
Davis, Cheryl and Raymond Lifchez (1987) An open letter or architects. In Lifchez, Raymond (ed.) Rethinking architecture: Design students and physically disabled people. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp.35-50.
Debes, Remy (2017) Dignity: A history (Oxford philosophical concepts). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, Martha Lynn (1995) Physical disability in the Ancient Greek World (PhD thesis), University of Minnesota.
Egonsson, Dan (1998) Dimensions of dignity: The moral importance of being human. Dordrecht Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Finkelstein, Vic (1981) Disability and the helper/helped relationship. An historical view. In Brechin, Ann, Penny Liddiard and John Swain (eds) Handicap in a social world: A reader, Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder & Stoughton in association with the Open University Press, pp.65-78.
Guffey, Elizabeth E. (2018) Designing disability: Symbols, space, and society. London, UK; New York, NY, USA: Bloomsbury Academic.
Hall, Peter and Robert Imrie (2001) Inclusive design: Designing and developing accessible environments. New York, NY: Spon Press.
Hamraie, Aimi (2017) Building Access: Universal design and the politics of disability. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Henning-Smith, Carrie Elizabeth (2015) No place like home? Disability and living arrangements in later life (PhD thesis), University of Minnesota.
Herwig, Oliver (2008) Universal design: Solutions for barrier-free living. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.
Hillier Bill and Julienne Hanson (1984) The social logic of space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jacobson, Nora, Vanessa Oliver and Andrew Koch (2009) An urban geography of dignity. Health & Place, 15 (3), pp.725-731.
Kent, Bonnie (2017) In the image of God: Human dignity after the fall. In Debes, Remy (ed.) Dignity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp.73-97.
Leibrock, Cynthia (1994) Dignified options to ADA compliance. Facilities Design & Management, 13 (6), pp.56-56.
Mace, Ronald (1985) Universal design, barrier free environments for everyone. Designers West, 33 (1), pp.147-152.
Mann, Jonathan (1998) Dignity and health: the UDHR’s revolutionary first article. Health and Human Rights, 3 (2), pp.30-39.
MIT Planning Office (1978) Transition plan for continuing architectural barrier removal and program accessibility for the handicapped at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Planning Office.
Panetsos, Georgios (1997) Seven positions on Athens. Architektones, 9 (10), pp.64-65.
Persson, Hans, Henrik Åhman, Alexander Yngling and Jan Gulliksen (2015) Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: Different concepts - one goal? On the concept of accessibility - historical, methodological and philosophical aspects. Universal Access in the Information Society, 14 (4), pp.505-26.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E., and Korydon H. Smith (eds) (2011) Universal Design Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rankine, Patrice (2017) Dignity in Homer and Classical Greece. In Debes, Remy (ed.) Dignity. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp.19-45.
Rodi, Alcestis (2008) Creating the creative block: Towards a design tool for urban regeneration (PhD thesis), School of Architecture, Delft University of Technology.
Rodi, Alcestis (2013) Placebos and medications: Mitigating the contradiction between suburbia and sustainability towards healthy communities. In Proceedings of the 50th International Making Cities Livable Conference on Reshaping Suburbia into Complete Healthy Communities, Portland, OR.
Rodi, Alcestis (2018) Mutually generative: Athens and Polykatoikia. In Woditsch, Richard (ed.) The public private house. Modern Athens and its Polykatoikia. Zurich: Park Books.
Rosen, Michael (2012) Dignity: Its history and meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Sneed, Deborah (2018) The life cycle of disability in Ancient Greece (Ph.D. dissertation) Los Angeles: University of California.
Stiker, Henri-Jacques (1999) A history of disability (corporealities). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Turner, David M. and Daniel Blackie (2018) Disability in the industrial revolution: Physical impairment in British coalmining, 1780–1880. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Tzonis, Alexander (1992) Huts, ships and bottleracks: Design by analogy for architects and/or machines. In Cross, Nigel, Kees Dorst and Norbert Roozenburg (eds) Research in design thinking. Delft: Delft University Press, pp.139-164.
Tzonis, Alexander and Alcestis P. Rodi (2013) Greece. Modern architectures in history. London, UK: Reaktion.
World Health Organization and World Bank (2011) World report on disability. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Zajadacz, Alina (2015) Evolution of models of disability as a basis for further policy changes in accessible tourism. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1 (3), pp.189-202.